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Accretion Of Discount: Meaning And Methods To Calculate

# Accretion Of Discount: Meaning And Methods To Calculate

• 29 Jun 2023

The bond represents a loan from an investor to a borrower (typically corporate or government). There's a predetermined maturity date with bonds. Furthermore, bonds can be bought at a discount, meaning at a price lower than their face value. Moreover, they are bought with a trading account. A trading account is a specialized account provided by brokerage firms or financial institutions that allow investors to trade financial instruments.

Accretion of discount is when the value of a discounted bond slowly increases as it approaches maturity. In accounting, this process allows the bond's value to be adjusted over time to ensure it aligns with its face value at maturity.In this article, we will explore the concept of the accretion of discount in more detail. Additionally, we will look at the straight-line and constant yield methods used for calculating discount accretion.

## What Is Accretion Of Discount?

In accretion of discount, as the maturity date approaches, the value of a discounted security increases. It is a process used to adjust the value of a bond that was purchased at a discounted price. Additionally, a financial instrument's value will accrete (grow) over time based on the discount rate implied by its discounted price, the face value, and the remaining maturity period.

Bonds can be acquired at par, premium, or a discount. However, regardless of the purchase price, all bonds will mature at par, also known as the face value. The par value represents the amount that bondholders will receive upon maturity.

The accretion of discount is used to adjust the bond's book value to its par value as it reaches maturity. As a bond approaches its maturity date, its value gradually decreases until it aligns with the par value. This gradual decline in value over time is called the amortization of premium.

Bonds issued at a discount have a value lower than those issued at par. As the bond approaches its maturity date, its value rises until it reaches the par value upon maturity. This gradual increase in value over time is known as the accretion of the discount.

Let's take an example of a 3-year bond with a par value of Rs. 1,000, which is initially issued at a discount of Rs. 975. As the bond progresses toward its maturity, its value gradually increases and eventually reaches the face value of Rs. 1,000. This face value represents the amount bondholders will receive upon the bond's maturity date.

## Methods Of Accounting For Bond Accretion

The straight-line and constant yield methods are the two main methods of accounting for bond accretion.

### Straight-Line Method

The increase in the bond's value is spread evenly over its term when using the straight-line method. For instance, if the bond term is five years and the company reports financials every quarter, there will be 20 financial periods until maturity.

Now, assume you have a bond that was initially sold at a discount of Rs. 500. This discount is divided equally over 20 periods, which means Rs. 25 for each quarter.

Every quarter Rs. 25 gets added to the amount you owe for the bond. This keeps happening until the bond reaches its maturity date. So, in each period, the amount you owe for the bond increases by Rs. 25.

Simply put, Rs. 500 gets spread out over time, and Rs. 25 gets added to the amount you owe each quarter until it's time to pay.

### Constant Yield Method

In the constant yield method, the bond's value increases the most near its maturity date. Also, the increment is not even like the straight-line method, and some periods tend to show bigger gains than others.

To use the constant yield method, you need to figure out the Yield to Maturity (YTM). YTM is how much the bond will earn until maturity. The yield is calculated using the par value of the bond, price, years to maturity, and the interest rate on the bond.

## Conclusion

Understanding the concept of accretion of discount is crucial for investors involved in bond trading. It allows for the adjustment of a bond's value over time, ensuring it aligns with its face value at maturity. A straight-line and constant yield methods are used to account for bond accretion.

## Accretion Of Discount FAQs

Amount of discount accretion is calculated by taking Purchase Basis x (YTM/Accrual periods per year) - Coupon Interest.

Let's assume that an investor purchases a bond with a face value of Rs. 200 and pays Rs.189. Since the investor is guaranteed Rs. 200 upon maturity of the bond, the bond will increase in value between the time of purchase and the maturity date. This increase is called accretion of discount.

"Amortization" decreases cost and income; "Accretion" increases cost and income.

Accreted value refers to a bond's current value, including interest accrued even if it is not paid until maturity. In other words, it's the value of a security or instrument that accrues interest but doesn't pay interest until maturity. Accrued value is typically seen in zero-coupon bonds or cumulative preferred stock.

The increasing value of a bond over time is called bond accretion. As the bond gets closer to maturity, its value increases until it reaches its par value, which is the amount paid to the holder.

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