Difference Between IPO & FPO


Imagine a company developing and growing day by day. An IPO serves as a big step for an organisation to make its ownership public. This huge step to list shares in the public market involves transforming private ownership into publicly traded shares, effectively extending ownership from a select few to a broader base of investors. An IPO represents a company's decision to open its doors to public investment, marking its debut as a publicly listed entity on a stock exchange.

Simultaneously, a company which is already listed in the public market can announce its FPOs, the reason for FPOs can be anything to settle finance, liquidity etc. The company decision of FPOs can be beneficial or not. You can learn the difference between IPOs and FPOs in the following article.

Understanding IPOs

An Initial Public Offering (IPO) marks the moment when a private company decides to go public by offering its shares to external investors through a stock exchange. This step is often taken to secure substantial capital to fuel growth, pay off debt, or fund research and development initiatives. The choice between FPO vs IPO depends on whether a company seeks additional capital after its initial public offering or is making its first incursion into the public market. Before embarking on an IPO, a company must undergo a rigorous process of due diligence, which includes financial audits, legal compliance checks, and comprehensive disclosures about its operations, risks, and future prospects. The primary difference between FPO and IPO lies in their timing, with an FPO being a subsequent offering of shares by a listed company, while an IPO is the initial issuance of shares to the public by a company entering the stock market for the first time


The IPO process typically involves the following stages


The company engages investment banks to underwrite the IPO, determining the offering price and the number of shares to be sold. Simultaneously, it complies with the required financial information and drafts the prospectus, which serves as a comprehensive guide for potential investors


Companies conduct roadshows to promote the IPO to institutional investors, analysts, and potential retail investors. These events provide an opportunity for the company's management team to present their business model, growth strategies, and financial outlook.

Book Building

Investment banks gauge investor interest through a process called book building, where they collect bids from potential investors at different price points. This helps determine the final offering price.


Once the offering price is set and the required regulatory approvals are obtained, the company lists its shares on a stock exchange, making them available for public trading.


After the IPO is completed, the company becomes a publicly traded entity, subject to stringent regulatory reporting requirements. The stock's price is determined by market demand and supply dynamics.

Exploring FPOs

Follow-On Public Offerings (FPOs), also known as Secondary Public Offerings (SPOs), occur when a company that is already publicly listed offers additional shares to the public. Unlike IPOs, where the primary aim is to transition from private to public ownership, FPOs are executed by companies seeking additional capital after their initial listing. This capital injection could be used for various purposes, such as expansion, acquisitions, debt repayment, or working capital.

The FPO process typically involves the following steps

Decision and Regulatory Approval

The company's board of directors decides on the need for additional capital and obtains necessary approvals from regulatory bodies and stock exchanges.


Similar to the IPO process, the company must provide detailed information about its financials, operations, and future plans in a prospectus for potential investors.


The pricing of shares in an FPO is determined through book building, where the company and its underwriters assess investor demand and set an offering price.

Subscription and Listing

Once the offering price is established and regulatory approvals are secured, the additional shares are offered to the public. Following the subscription period, the new shares are listed on the stock exchange.


After the FPO, the company continues to be publicly traded, with the additional shares contributing to the overall market capitalization. Investors who purchase these new shares become shareholders of the company.

Key Differences Between IPO & FPO

Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) and Follow-On Public Offerings (FPOs) are two essential mechanisms through which companies raise capital from the public markets. While both involve the issuance of shares to external investors, they differ significantly in terms of their timing, purpose, and implications.

Differences IPO FPO 
Timing and Purpose IPOs mark the first time a privately held company decides to go public and offer its shares to external investors. This step is often taken to raise substantial capital for expansion, research and development, debt repayment, and other strategic initiatives.FPOs occur after a company has already undergone its IPO and is already listed on a stock exchange. FPOs are a means for publicly listed companies to raise additional capital by offering more shares to the public
Company Status IPOs involve the transition of a private company to a public one, marking its debut as a publicly traded entity. The company embarks on an IPO to access a wider pool of investors and unlock new avenues of capital.FPOs involve companies that are already publicly listed. These companies have an established track record in the public market and have already undergone the scrutiny of regulatory agencies and investors during their IPO
Underwriting and Pricing In an IPO, investment banks play a crucial role in underwriting the offering. They work closely with the company to determine the initial offering price, which is often based on a thorough analysis of the company's financials, market conditions, and investor demand.FPOs often have a more flexible pricing approach. The offering price for FPO shares may be influenced by market sentiment, the company's performance since its IPO, and the prevailing economic conditions
Regulatory Requirements and Disclosures IPOs generally entail more comprehensive disclosures due to the private-to-public transition. Companies undergoing an IPO must provide extensive information about their financials, operations, risks, and future prospects to potential investors. These disclosures are crucial to building investor confidence and facilitating informed investment decisions.In FPOs, the regulatory requirements may be somewhat streamlined, as the company has already undergone initial scrutiny during its IPO. However, FPOs still require companies to provide updated financial information and relevant disclosures to reflect their current status and future plans.


When comparing IPO vs FPO, it's evident that while both involve public share issuance, FPOs target existing investors, whereas IPOs mark a company's initial entry into the public market. In the dynamic landscape of public capital markets, IPOs and FPOs serve as distinct avenues for companies to raise funds and achieve their growth objectives. IPOs mark a company's debut as a publicly traded entity, while FPOs enable already-listed companies to raise additional capital.  

Investors often evaluate the risk-reward balance between FPO vs IPO opportunities before making informed decisions in the market. The timing, purpose and implications of these offerings vary, reflecting the different stages of a company's public journey. Revolutionise your trading experience with BlinkX trading app, empowering you with real-time market insights, user-friendly interface, and advanced tools to help you make informed investment decisions and seize opportunities like never before.


Frequently Asked Questions

An IPO, or Initial Public Offering, is the first-time offering of a private company's shares to the public. It marks the transition from private ownership to becoming a publicly traded company on a stock exchange.

An FPO, or Follow-On Public Offering, is when a company that is already publicly listed offers additional shares to the public. It's a way for a company to raise more capital after its initial listing.

The main purpose of an IPO is to raise significant capital for a company's expansion, development, debt repayment, and other strategic initiatives.

Investors should consider factors such as the company's growth potential, market reputation, pricing strategies, and regulatory disclosures when comparing FPO vs IPO benefits.

Companies choose FPOs to raise additional funds to support ongoing projects, acquisitions, debt reduction, or other growth opportunities.

An IPO transforms a private company into a publicly traded one. In contrast, an FPO involves a company that is already public, offering more shares to further capitalise on its existing listing.