Clearing and Settlement Process in Stock Markets

Clearing and Settlement Process in Stock Markets

The clearing and settlement process in stock market plays a significant role in ensuring the efficient and secure transfer of securities and funds between buyers and sellers. The process consists of a series of steps and procedures involved in the post-trade processing of securities transactions. 

Validation, matching, netting, and final settlement are also important aspects of the clearing & settlement process in the stock market. The primary objective of this process is to ensure the smooth and secure transfer of securities and funds, while maintaining the integrity of the market. 

The clearing and settlement process in the Indian stock market is a vital mechanism that facilitates the smooth transfer of securities and funds, ensuring efficient and secure transactions.

What are the Entities Involved in Clearing & Settlement Process

The Clearing and settlement process in stock market consists of a series of steps and procedures involved in the post-trade processing of securities transactions. 

Behind this process there are several key entities that work together to facilitate the seamless transfer of securities and funds between buyers and sellers. Such entities are explained in detail as follows. 

Clearing Corporations

Clearing Corporations are intermediaries between buyers and sellers. They become the central counterparty to all trades, ensuring the performance and settlement of transactions. In India The National Securities Clearing Corporation Limited (NSCCL) is in charge of clearing and settling trades made at the stock exchange. Clearing corporations validate trade details, manage risk, and facilitate the netting process.

Depositories

Depositories in India, such as the National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) and Central Depository Services (India) Limited (CDSL), are responsible for the custody and maintenance of securities in electronic form. They keep records of ownership and facilitate the Clearing and settlement process in stock market by ensuring the accurate transfer of securities between buyer and seller accounts.

Clearing Banks 

Clearing banks are banks that provide clearing and settlement services for trades executed on the stock exchanges. They facilitate the transfer of funds between buyer and seller accounts, ensuring the timely and accurate settlement of transactions.

Trading Members

Trading members are entities that have been authorised by stock exchanges to trade on their behalf. They are responsible for executing trades on behalf of their clients and play a role in confirming and settling the trades.

Custodians

Custodians are financial institutions that hold and safeguard securities and funds on behalf of investors. They often work in conjunction with depositories to provide custody services, ensuring the safekeeping of securities and the settlement of transactions.

Investors

Investors are individuals or entities that buy and sell securities on the stock exchanges. They play a crucial role in the functioning of the stock market and drive price discovery through their buying and selling activities.

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Table of Content

  1. What are the Entities Involved in Clearing & Settlement Process
  2. Types of Settlements in the indian stock Market
  3. Conclusion

Types of Settlements in the indian stock Market

Clearing and Settlement Process in indian Stock Market includes three primary 

types of settlements: Spot Settlement, Forward settlement & Rolling Settlement. Let's explore each type in detail:

Spot Settlement 

Spot settlement is a type of settlement process where the trades are settled on the same day of trade execution. In spot settlement, the trading and settlement phases occur simultaneously, and the transfer of securities and funds happens on the same day. The clearing corporation matches the trades and facilitates the transfer of funds and securities between the buyer and seller accounts. The securities and funds are transferred through the depository and clearing banks. 

Forward Settlement

Forward settlement is a type of settlement process where the trades are settled on a future date, which is agreed upon by the buyer and the seller at the time of trade execution. The clearing corporation facilitates the transfer of securities and funds between the buyer and seller accounts on the settlement date.

Rolling Settlement

Rolling settlement is a commonly used settlement process in the Indian stock market. Under this process, trades executed on a specific trading day (T) are settled two days after the trade execution date, following a T+2 settlement cycle. Rolling settlement provides transparency, reduces settlement risk, and facilitates smooth trade settlement in the Indian stock market. 

Conclusion

The clearing and settlement process in stock market  is a vital component of stock markets worldwide. Clearing and settlement processes such as rolling settlement and spot settlement enable timely transfer of securities and funds between buyers and sellers, ensuring transparency and integrity in market transactions. These processes help manage settlement risk, enhance liquidity, and contribute to the overall stability of stock markets.

 

Clearing and Settlement Process in Stock Markets FAQ

The clearing and settlement process is a series of steps that ensure the smooth and secure completion of trades in stock markets. It involves validating and matching trades, transferring securities, and settling funds between buyers and sellers.

During the clearing phase, the stock exchange or a clearinghouse validates and matches the trade details, calculates the obligations of buyers and sellers, and ensures that all necessary information is available for settlement.

T+2 settlement refers to the standard settlement cycle in many stock markets, where trades are settled two business days after the trade date. This means that the buyer must make payment and the seller must deliver the securities within two days.

The clearing and settlement process in stock market  is necessary to minimise risk and ensure the integrity of transactions in stock markets. It helps ensure that securities are delivered and payments are made correctly.

The duration of the clearing and settlement process in indian stock market can vary depending on the market and the specific securities being traded. In many cases, the process is completed within a few business days.